Joy Division were an English rock band formed in 1976 in Salford, Greater Manchester. Originally named
Warsaw, the band consisted of singer Ian Curtis, guitarist and keyboardist Bernard Sumner, bassist
Peter Hook, and drummer Stephen Morris.
Formed by Sumner and Hook right after they attended a Sex Pistols gig, Joy Division transcended their punk
roots to develop a sound and style that made them one of the pioneers of the post-punk movement . Their self - release 1978 debut EP, an Ideal for Living, drew the attention of the Manchester television personality Tony Wilson.
The sleeve's Germanic imagery drew criticism on their politics, not helped by later name changes. Joy
Division's debut album Unknown Pleasures was
released in 1979 on Wilson's independent label Factory Records by Martin Hannett's sparse production, it was a critical success with the British music press. Despite this early acclaim, Curtis suffered from severe
depression and personal difficulties, including a broken marriage and epilepsy. In particular he found it increasingly difficult to perform at live concerts, during which he often suffered seizures. In May 1980, on the eve of the band's debut American tour, Curtis, aged 23, committed suicide.
Closer, Joy Division's second and final album was released two months later; the album and preceding single "Love Will Tear Us Apart" became the band's highest charting release. After Curtis's death, the remaining members continued as New Order , achieving critical and commercial success. Today Joy Division are seen as one of the most influential bands of the late 1970s.
HACIENDA FAC 51
"TITTER YE NOT"
2 Man Utd fans are in
London. They walk past a shop and see a sign Shirts 50p
One said 'great value!
lets buy some.'
The other one says
'don't let them know
we're Man U fans or
they'll try to rip us off.'
So they hide their
They enter the shop
and ask for 6 shirts
each & 6 pairs of
The assistant asked
"are you Man Utd fans"
to which they replied
He said 'Piss off this is
Bez bumps into Jeremy Clarkson and they start to chat. Bez says to him,
"What do you do
He replies, "Top Gear".
Bez says "Fucking
brilliant I'll have two
My doctor told me to
stay away from
So I bought a fifteen
HACIENDA FAC 51
Fac 51 The Haçienda (better known simply as Haçienda)
was a nightclub and music venue in Manchester, England. It
became most famous during the "Madchester" years of the
late 1980s and early 1990s; during the 1990s it was labelled
the most famous club in the world by Newsweek magazine.
The Haçienda opened in 1982, and despite considerable and
persistent financial troubles survived until 1997 – during
much of this time the club was mainly supported by record
sales from New Order. The Haçienda is associated with the
rise of acid house and rave music.
The former warehouse occupied by the club was at 11-13,
Whitworth Street West on the south side of the Rochdale
the frontage was curved and built of red brick. Before it
was turned into a club, the Haçienda was a yacht builder's
shop and warehouse before becoming a Bollywood cinema
in the 1970s, showing films to the local Asian community.
Originally conceived by Rob Gretton, it was largely financed
by the record label Factory Records and the band New
Order along with label boss Tony Wilson. It was located on
the corner of Whitworth Street West and Albion Street, close
to Castlefield, in the centre of the city. FAC 51 was its official
designation in the Factory catalogue. New Order and Tony
Wilson were directors of the club. Designed by Ben Kelly ,
upon recommendation by Factory graphic designer Peter Saville, upstairs consisted of
a stage, dance area, bar, cloakroom, cafeteria area and balcony with a DJ booth.
Downstairs was a cocktail bar called 'The Gay Traitor,' which referred to Anthony Blunt,
a British art historian who spied for the Soviet Union. The two other bars, 'The Kim
Philby' and 'Hicks,' were named after Blunt's fellow spies. From 1995 onwards, the
lower cellar areas of the venue were converted to create the 5th Man, a smaller music
“Adidas produced a limited-edition pair of Haçienda trainers, designed by Yohji
Yamamoto" (Saville has worked with Yohji since the late 1980s, creating his catalogues and advertisements). They retailed for £345 but people queued up from midnight just to be the first through the doors to buy a pair. "The shoes disappeared in twenty minutes - all sold out.”
The name comes from a slogan of the radical group Situationist International:
"The Hacienda Must Be Built", from Formulary for a New Urbanism by Ivan Chtcheglov .
A hacienda is a large homestead in a ranch or estate usually in places where Colonial Spanish culture has had architectural
influence. Even though the cedilla is not used in Spanish, the spelling " Haçienda " was decided on for the club because the cedilla makes the "çi" resemble "51," the club's catalogue number.
The Haçienda was opened on the 21st of May 1982, when the comedian Bernard Manning remarked to the audience, "I've played some shit-holes during my time, but this is really something." His jokes did not go down well with the crowd and he returned his fee.
A wide portfolio of important 20th century musical acts appeared at the club. One of the earliest was the German EBM
band Liaisons Dangereuses, which played there on the 7th of July 1982. The Smiths performed there three times in 1983. It served as a venue for Madonna on her first performance in the United Kingdom, on the 27th of January 1984. She was invited to appear as part of a one-off, live television broadcast by Channel 4 music programme The Tube. Madonna performed "Holiday" whilst at The Haçienda and the performance was described by Norman Cook (perhaps better known as Fatboy Slim) as one that "mesmerised the crowd".
At one time, the venue also included a hairdressing salon. As well as club nights there were regular concerts, including one in which Einstürzende Neubauten drilled into the walls that surrounded the stage.
In 1986, it became one of the first British clubs to start playing house music , with DJs Mike Pickering (of Quando Quango and M People) and Little Martin (later with Graeme Park) hosting the visionary "Nude" night on Fridays. This night quickly became legendary, and helped to turn around the reputation and fortunes of the Haçienda, which went from making a consistent loss to being full every night of the week by early 1987.
The growth of the ' Madchester ' scene had little to do with the healthy house music scene in Manchester at the time but it was boosted by the success of he Haçienda's pioneering Ibiza night, "Hot", an acid house night hosted by Pickering and Jon DaSilva in July 1988.
However, drug use became a problem. On the 14th of July 1989, the UK's first ecstasy-related death occurred at the
16-year-old Clare Leighton collapsed and died after her boyfriend gave her an ecstasy tablet. The police clampdown that followed was opposed by Manchester City Council, which argued that the club contributed to an "active use of the city centre core" in line with the government's policy of regenerating urban areas. The resulting problems caused the club to close for a short period in early 1991, before reopening with increased security later the same year.
Haçienda DJs made regular and guest appearances on radio and TV shows like Granada TV's Juice, Sunset 102 and BBC Radio 1. Between 1994 and 1997 Hacienda FM was a weekly show on Manchester dance station Kiss 102.
Security was frequently a problem, particularly in the club's latter years. There were several shootings inside and outside the club , and relations with the police and licensing authorities became troubled. When local magistrates and police visited the club in 1997, they witnessed a near-fatal assault on a man in the streets outside when a 18-year-old was hit over the head from behind with what looked like a metal bar before being pushed into the path of an on-coming car.
The Haçienda lost its entertainments licence in June 1997. The last
night of the club was the 28th of June 1997, a club night called 'Freak'
featuring DJs Elliot Eastwick and Dave Haslam (the final live
performance was by Spiritualized on the 15th of June 1997). The club
remained open for a short period as an art gallery before finally going
bankrupt and closing for good. After the Haçienda officially closed, it
was used as a venue for two free parties organised by the
Manchester free party scene. One of the parties ended in a police
siege of the building while the party continued inside. These parties
resulted in considerable damage and the application of graffiti to the
Ben Kelly designed interior.
Following a number of years standing empty, the Whitworth Street
West site was purchased from the receivers by Crosby Homes .
They chose to demolish the nightclub, and reuse the site for the
construction of domestic flats.
The iconic name was kept for the new development, with the
Haçienda name licensed from Peter Hook, who owns the name and trademark. The nightclub was demolished in 2002 - Crosby Homes had acquired the property some time before that and on Saturday the 25th of November 2000, held a charity auction of the various fixtures and fittings from the nightclub. Club goers and enthusiasts from across the country attended to buy memorabilia ranging from the DJ booth box and radiators to emergency exit lights. The DJ booth was bought by Bobby Langley, ex Haçienda DJ, and Head of Merchandise for Sony Music London for an undisclosed fee.
Michael Winterbottom's 2002 film 24 Hour Party People
starring Steve Coogan as Tony Wilson, tells the story of the Haçienda.
The movie was filmed in 2001, and required reconstructing the Haçienda as a temporary set in a Manchester factory, which was then opened to ticket holders for one night, acting as a full-scale nightclub (except with a free bar) as the film shooting took place.
The Manchester exhibition centre Urbis hosted an exhibition celebrating the 25th anniversary of the club's opening, which ran from mid-July 2007 until mid February 2008. Peter Hook and many other of those originally involved contributed or loaned material.
The Manchester Museum of Science and Industry now
holds a variety of Haçienda and Factory records artefacts including the main loading bay doors from the club, and a wide array of posters, fliers and props. Rob Gretton bequeathed his collection of Haçienda memorabilia to the Museum.
In October 2009, Peter Hook published his book on his time as co-owner of the Haçienda, How Not to Run a Club.
24 HOUR PARTY PEOPLE
Happy Mondays are an English alternative rock band from Salford, Greater Manchester . Formed in 1980, the band's original line up was Shaun Ryder on lead vocals, his brother Paul Ryder on bass, lead guitarist Mark Day, keyboardist Paul Davis, and drummer Gary Whelan. Mark "Bez" Berry later joined the band onstage during a live performance after befriending Shaun Ryder and served as a dancer/percussionist. Rowetta Satchell joined the band to provide backing vocals in the early 1990s.
The first official release from Happy Mondays was the
" Forty Five E.P. ", often called the "Delightful E.P." after its first track.
It was released on Factory Records in September 1985.
Manchester music impresario Tony Wilson discovered them (then
managed by Phil Saxe) at a battle of the bands contest held at his
Hacienda night club. Their first album, Squirrel and G-Man Twenty
Four Hour Party People Plastic Face Carnt Smile (White Out),
debuted in 1987 and was produced by John Cale.
This was followed by two classic albums; Bummed in 1988,
produced by Martin Hannett, then Pills 'n' Thrills and Bellyaches
in 1990 produced by Paul Oakenfold and Steve Osborne which
went platinum in the UK selling more than 350,000 copies. This put
the band firmly on the map as one of the most influential bands to
come out of the UK in the early 1990s.
The album was recorded at Capitol Studios in Los Angeles. Singles "Step On" and "Kinky Afro" from this album both reached number 5 in the UK singles chart. Yes Please! followed in 1992, produced byChris Frantz and Tina Weymouth, recorded at Eddy Grant's studio in Barbados . By the late 1980s, the Happy Mondays were an important part of the Manchester music scene and personified rave culture. Numerous world tours meant the band had international success as well as massive success in their home country. The line up of the band during this first and most important ten year phase never changed, and the six original members Shaun Ryder, Paul Ryder, Gary Whelan, Paul Davis, Mark Day and Mark "Bez" Berry remained a tight unit until the first incarnation came to an end in 1994. Earlier that year, the band had appeared on the bill at the 1990 Glastonbury Festival. In late 1990, Paul McCartney stated:
I saw the Happy Mondays on TV, and they reminded me of the Beatles in their 'Strawberry Fields' phase.
— Paul McCartney, NME, November 1990
Musically, the band fused indie pop guitars with a rhythmic style that owed much to house music, funk and northern soul. Much of their music was remixed by popular DJs, emphasizing the dance influences even further. In terms of style and dress, they crossed hippy fashion and ideals with 1970s glamour. Sartorially and musically, the band helped to encourage the psychedelic revival associated with acid house. One of their most popular songs was " Lazyitis (One Armed Boxer)", featuring a surreal duet between Ryder and Karl Denver.
In February 1991, Happy Mondays played at the Maracanã Stadium in Rio de Janeiro, and famously went to meet Ronnie Biggs with Piers Morgan, who at the time was a writer for The Sun newspaper. The Mondays also influenced many bands around the Northwest and beyond, including the Stone Roses, Oasis and the Charlatans. A multi-city US tour followed with the group returning home early in May 1991. However, by July that year they revealed details of a fourteen track 'official bootleg' live album, Baby Big Head, recorded in Leeds. The official record label release, Live followed later in the year.
Happy Mondays disbanded in 1993, and Shaun Ryder and Bez formed Black Grape with ex-Paris Angels guitarist "Wags" (who would later go on to serve in the 1999-2000 reincarnation of the Mondays) and ex-Ruthless Rap Assassins star Kermit.
HAPPY MONDAYS STEP ON
The Stone Roses are an English rock band formed in Manchester in 1983. They were one of the pioneering groups of the Madchester movement that was active during the late 1980s and early 1990s. The band's most successful line up consisted
of vocalist Ian Brown, guitarist John Squire, bassist Mani, and drummer Reni.
The band released their debut album, The Stone Roses , in 1989. The album was a breakthrough success for the band and gained critical acclaim, with many critics regarding it as one of the
greatest British albums ever recorded. At this time the group decided to
capitalise on their success by signing to a major label. Their current
record label, Silvertone, would not let them out of their contract, which
led to a long legal battle that culminated with the band signing with
Geffen Records in 1991. The Stone Roses then released their second
album, Second Coming, which was met with lacklustre reviews in 1994.
The group soon disbanded after several line up changes throughout the
supporting tour, which began with Reni first departing, followed by
Following much intensified media speculation, The Stone Roses called
a press conference on the 18th of October 2011 to announce that the
band had reunited and would perform a reunion tour of the world in
2012, including three homecoming shows in Heaton Park, Manchester.
Plans to record a third album in the future were also floated. In June
2012, Chris Coghill, the writer of the new film which is set during the
Stone Roses 1990 Spike Island show, revealed that the band "have at
least three or four new tracks recorded". In June 2013, a documentary
about the band's reformation directed by Shane Meadows and titled The Stone Roses:
The Stone Roses's influences included Garage Rock, Northern Soul, Punk Rock, and artists such as The Beatles, The Rolling Stones, The Beach Boys, The Byrds, Johnny Marr, Jimi Hendrix, Led Zeppelin, The Jesus and Mary Chain, Sonic Youth, The Sex Pistols and The Clash.
The band were part of the Madchester movement, a style of alternative rock that mixed acid house rhythms with guitar pop sounds. The band went on to influence other artists, most notably Oasis, of which Noel Gallagher was quoted in an interview saying "when I heard Sally Cinnamon for the first time, I knew what my destiny was". Liam Gallagher has also stated that they were the first band that he had seen live, and that seeing them perform influenced him into becoming a musician.
We're the most important group in the world, because we've got the best songs and we haven't even begun to show our potential yet.
– Ian Brown - NME - December 1989
New Order The band was formed in 1980 by Bernard Sumner (vocals,
guitars, keyboards and synthesisers), Peter Hook (bass and vocals) and Stephen Morris (drums, electronic drums, keyboards and synthesisers) – the remaining members of Joy Division, following the suicide of vocalist
Ian Curtis, the addition of Gillian Gilbert (keyboards, synthesisers and
By combining post-punk and electronic dance music, New Order became one of the most critically acclaimed and influential bands of the 1980s. Though the band's early years were shadowed by the legacy and basic sound of Joy Division, their experience of the early 1980s New York City
club scene increased their knowledge of dance music and helped them incorporate elements of that style into their work.
The band's 1983 hit " Blue Monday ", the best-selling 12-inch single of all time, is one example of how the band transformed their sound.
New Order were the flagship band for Manchester based independent record
label Factory Records. Their minimalist album sleeves and "non-image" (the band rarely gave interviews and were known for performing short concert sets with no encores) reflected the label's
aesthetic of doing whatever the relevant parties wanted to do, including an aversion to including singles as album tracks. In 1993, the band worked on their own individual projects and reunited as a band in 1998. In 2001, Cunningham (guitars, keyboards and synthesisers) replaced Gilbert, who took a sabbatical from the band because of family commitments. In 2007, Peter Hook left the band. After Hook's departure, Bernard, Phil and Steve worked on Bad Lieutenant and the band reunited in 2011 without Hook, with Gilbert's return and Chapman replacing Hook on bass. During the band's career and in between lengthy breaks, band members have been involved in several solo projects, such as Sumner's Electronic and Bad Lieutenant; Hook's Monaco and Revenge and Gilbert and Morris' The Other Two. Cunningham was previously a member of Marion and with Sumner and Chapman was a member of Bad Lieutenant.
Almost all New Order recordings bore the minimalist packaging of Peter Saville . The group's record sleeves bucked the 1980s trend by rarely showing the band members (the Low-Life album was the exception) or even providing basic information such as the band name or the title of the release. Song names were often hidden within the shrink wrapped package, either on the disc itself (such as the "Blue Monday" single) or on an inconspicuous part of an inner sleeve ("The Perfect Kiss" single), or a cryptic colour code invented by Saville (Power, Corruption & Lies). Saville said his intention was to sell the band as a "mass-produced secret" of sorts, and that the minimalist style was enough to allow fans to identify the band's products without explicit labelling. Saville frequently sent the artwork straight to the printer, unreviewed by either the band or the label.
The Charlatans (known in the United States as The
Charlatans UK) are an English indie rock band. The band's
line-up currently comprises lead vocalist Tim Burgess,
guitarist Mark Collins, bassist Martin Blunt and keyboardist
Former members of the band include vocalist Baz Ketley
(1989); guitarist Jon Day (Jonathan Baker) (1989–1991);
keyboardist Rob Collins (1989 – 1996), who died in a car
accident during recording of their fifth album; and drummer
Jon Brookes (1989-2013), who died after being diagnosed
with a brain tumour in 2010.
In the UK, all of the band's twelve studio albums have
charted in the Top 40 in the UK Albums Chart, three of
them being number ones. They have also achieved
seventeen Top 30 singles and four Top 10 hits in the UK Singles Chart. The band were originally formed in the West Midlands by bassist Martin Blunt, who recruited fellow West Midlanders Rob Collins (keyboards), Jon Brookes (drums), Jon Day (Jonathan Baker) (guitar) and singer/guitarist Baz Ketley (who later left the band to be replaced by Tim Burgess). Although the Charlatans would later become popularly associated with the Madchester scene, the band's early demos recorded in 1988 in Birmingham and Dudley already evidenced the sound that the band ultimately became famous for, dominated by Collins' Hammond organ but underpinned by the driving rhythm section of Blunt's powerful running bass and Brookes's drumming. With their sound fusing 1960s soul, R&B and garage rock – inherited from Blunt's earlier 1982 band Making Time, the band saw themselves firmly in the West Midlands tradition of hard-edged soul and R&B that included Birmingham bands The Spencer Davis Group and early Dexys Midnight Runners .
Although the name The Charlatans was already being used when the original members of the band were still located in the West Midlands, many sources state that they formed in Northwich, Cheshire. This is because the band relocated to the home town of new lead singer Tim Burgess (who was born in Salford, but lived in Northwich from an early age) before the 1990 release of The Charlatans' debut single " Indian Rope ", on the band's own Dead Dead Good Records label. Thus based on the definition of hometown used by Guinness World Records the band was formed in Northwich, and consequently Northwich is recorded as their home town in such publications as British Hit Singles & Albums - although the founding members are actually from Walsall.
Schoolfriends Lambert and Holt recruited drummer Craig Gill, and formed Inspiral Carpets in 1983, originally as a garage punk band, with keyboardist Glenn Chesworth and bassist Tony Feeley.
In 1987, following the departures of Chesworth and Feeley, the line up included first Mark Hughes, then Dave Swifton bass and organist Clint Boon (whose Ashton under Lyne studio the band had been using for rehearsals). The band released two albums worth of, Waiting for Ours and Songs of Shallow Intensity, including
songs that would later be re-recorded.
They came to prominence, alongside bands like The Stone Roses and Happy Mondays, in the 'Madchester' scene of the late 1980s. After a flexi disc featuring
Garage Full of Flowers given free with Manchester's Debris magazine in 1987, followed the Cow cassette, their first release proper, the 1988 Plane crash EP on the Playtime label received much airplay from Radio 1 DJ John Peel, who asked the band to record a session for his show. At the time of their initial success, the band earned some notoriety for their squiggly-eyed cow ' Cool as Fuck ' T-shirts when a student at Oxford Polytechnic was prosecuted on obscenity charges for wearing one. They reworked their single "Find Out Why" as the theme tune to the 8:15 from Manchester.
As their popularity grew, Playtime's distributor Red Rhino Records went bust, leading the band to form their own label, Cow Records in March 1989, the labels' first release being the Trainsurfing EP . But with half of first album Life written, Holt and Swift departed and formed The Rain kings, The Inspirals recruited Too Much Texas singer Tom Hingley and Martin "Bungle" Walsh of The Next Step to replace them. Guitarist Graham Lambert states in an interview on the Cool As box set that the band had tried numerous bass players before settling on Martyn Walsh, who was their thirteenth bass player. After a handful of singles on their own label, the last of which, "Move", came close to the UK top 40, they signed a deal with Mute Records, and immediately had their first top 40 chart success in the UK with "This Is How It Feels", which is a song about unemployment and touches on themes of domestic violence. The single reached No. 14 in the singles chart, and debut album Life reached No. 2 in the album chart, both in 1990. The following year's The Beast Inside was less well received by critics, but still achieved a top 5 album chart placing. The "Caravan" and "Please be Cruel" singles only reached No. 30 and No. 50 respectively, and an attempt to crack the American market largely failed.
The band did, however, gain a strong following in Portugal, Germany, and Argentina, with the band's 1992 album Revenge of the Goldfish becoming their most successful in those countries. The album peaked at number 17 in the UK, and spawned four UK hit singles. The next album, Devil Hopping (1994) reached number 10 in the album chart, with "Saturn 5" and "I Want You" giving them top 20 hits, from that LP. (The latter's single version featured Mark E. Smith ). Next single "Uniform" stalled at No. 51 and in 1995, after the release of a Singles collection, the band were dropped by Mute, and split up soon after.
808 State are an English electronic music group, formed in 1987 in Manchester,
taking their name from the Roland TR-808 drum machine and their common state
of mind. They were formed by Graham Massey, Martin Price and Gerald Simpson,
and they released their debut album Newbuild in September 1988. The band
secured commercial success in 1989, when their song " Pacific State " was picked
up by BBC Radio 1 DJ Gary Davies.
Martin Price was the owner of a record store, Eastern Bloc, and was also the
founder of the independent record label, Creed. Customers Graham Massey and
Gerald Simpson joined with Price to form a hip-hop group called Hit Squad
Manchester. Soon after, the band shifted to an acid house sound, recording the
debut Newbuild in 1988, while using the name 808 State for the first time.
Newbuild was released on Price's own record label. In an interview with Mojo
magazine in 2005, Graham Massey explained that the album was recorded over the course of a winter weekend in January
1988 at Spirit Studios, Manchester. The album was named after a Bolton housing co-operative. The record was re-released
in 2005 on Aphex Twin's Rephlex Records. Aphex Twin was a huge fan of the record:
"It was the next step after Chicago acid, and as much as I loved that, I could relate much better to 808 State. It seemed colder and more human at the same time."
Around the same time, the band also recorded an acid house version of New Order's "Blue Monday". A favourite at The Haçienda's Hot Night, the recording was believed lost until Autechre's Sean Booth asked Massey to dig through his archive of old material. The record was released in 2004 by Rephlex Records . “We didn’t put a lot of thought into it but maybe that’s its charm," said Massey at the time. Massey had been a member of the band Aqua in the 1970s, along with the violinist
Graham Clark, a former pupil of Manchester Grammar School.
The band's song "Pacific State" was released as a single, peaking at #10 in the UK Singles Chart. Simpson left the group in 1989 to form his own solo project, A Guy Called Gerald. At this point, the remaining personnel enlisted DJs Andrew Barker and Darren Partington, known as the Spinmasters, and recorded the EP, Quadrastate in July 1989. Ninety was released in December 1989.
MC Tunes worked with the band on the 1990 album, The North At Its Heights. The album was a moderate success, reaching #26 in the UK Albums Chart, and also saw a European and Japanese release. It spawned three UK singles, "The Only Rhyme That Bites" – featuring a sample of "The Big Country" performed by The City of Prague Philharmonic – (UK #10), "Tunes Splits the Atom" (UK #18) and "Primary Rhyming" (UK #67). The first two issues credited MC Tunes versus 808 State, whilst the latter was simply MC Tunes. Tunes later returned in 1996 to work with on a new track, "Pump", taken from 808 State's album Thermo Kings. 808 State's next album was released in 1991, Ex:el , which featured vocals from Bernard Sumner and Björk. Other hits included "In Yer Face" (UK #9), "Cubik Olympic" (UK #10) and "Lift" (UK #38).
Joy Division sounded like Manchester:
cold, sparse and at times, bleak.
The material on this site does not necessarily reflect the views of What If? Tees.
The Images and Text are not meant to offend but to Promote Positive Open Debate and Free Speech.
The material on this site does not reflect the views of What If? Tees.
The Images and Text are not meant to offend but to Promote Positive Open Debate and Free Speech.